Recent Development in Ammonia Stripping Process for Industrial Wastewater Treatment
1. Introduction Human activities appear to be the major contributor to water pollution, for instance, agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities. Nitrogen surplus released into the environment has been proven to cause negative impacts on water qualities, human health, and ecosystems . Nonetheless, a wide range of technologies is...
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Crossflow Cooling Towers
In crossflow towers the water flows vertically through the fill while the air flows horizontally, across the flow of the falling water. Because of this, air does not have to pass through the distribution system, permitting the use of gravity flow hot water distribution basins mounted at the top of the unit above the fill.
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Counterflow Cooling Towers
Counterflow towers are designed so that air flows vertically upward, counter to the flow of falling water in the fill. Because of this vertical airflow, it is not possible to use the open, gravity-flow basins typical in crossflow designs. Instead, counterflow towers use pressurized, pipe-type spray systems to spray water onto the top of the fill....
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